Levels of analysis issues in group psychology: Using efficacy as an example of a multilevel model
Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice,
Levels of analysis issues have attracted a lot of attention in group psychology research. Despite assertions pertaining to the value of multilevel models, most researchers focus on either the individual within groups or the group as a whole, but seldom on both. A multilevel approach may be helpful to group psychologists. This article addresses levels of analysis issues that are an inherent part of group research, and a number of methods that can be used to analyze multilevel data are presented. The methods fall into 3 categories: (a) assessing the extent of agreement within a single group, (b) contrasting within-group and between-groups variance, and (c) conducting multiple-level analyses. Finally, recommendations are offered for future multilevel research.