Collective Efficacy: A Multilevel Analysis
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,
A full understanding of how efficacy beliefs influence collective action requires considering the social nature of groups. The authors focus on collective efficacy, a shared belief that individuals hold about the group. Collective efficacy can be influenced by both individual- and group-level variables. A multilevel framework is employed to analyze the antecedents and consequences of collective efficacy in college basketball teams. Individual-level influences on collective efficacy included self-efficacy, optimism, perceptions of leader effectiveness, and perceptions of recent team performance. Group-level influences included group size, past team performance, and confident leadership. The authors also found support for collective efficacy as a shared belief. This support came from showing within-team agreement and the interdependence of team members’ collective efficacy beliefs. Collective efficacy beliefs were persistent and affected group performance. Finally, the role of leadership in the creation, maintenance, and enhancement of collective efficacy was analyzed.